Wellness Database: Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Omega 3 Fatty Acids are found in fish and fish oil. This is a critical part of the Mediterranean Diet. Omega 3 Fatty Acids may help to prevent heart disease and endothelial dysfunction.
Omega-3 Supplementation May Help Prevent Atherosclerosis
Summary: The effects of omega-3 supplementation on plasma concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules were assessed in this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (n=18). Researchers found that omega-3 supplementation reduced plasma concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1), but had no significant effects on soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, in healthy subjects and in subjects with dyslipidemia. Researchers conclude that omega-3 supplementation can reduce plasma concentrations of sICAM-1, and may be effective as a primary or secondary means for preventing the development and the progression of atherosclerosis.
Statin Patients May Benefit From Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Summary: Combination of statins and omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit symptoms associated with high cholesterol. Study followed patients (n=32), 30-70 years old, with hypercholesterolemia controlled by statins. Subjects received sequential treatments with placebo followed by 1.9 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids for 23 weeks. Physical examination, 24-h blood pressure measurement, endothelial function, platelet function, inflammation markers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress parameters were undertaken at baseline, after placebo treatment, and after 6 and 20 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid intake. Researchers found that platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited, inflammation was decreased, oxidative stress remained unaffected and daytime blood pressure significantly decreased. Researchers assert that the combination of statins and omega-3 fatty acid may inhibit platelet aggregation, alter inflammatory status, and positively affect daytime blood pressure.
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation May Improve Endothelial Function
Summary: In a meta-analysis of 16 randomized, placebo-controlled trials including 901 subjects, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was found to significantly improve endothelial function without affecting endothelium-independent dilation. Researchers assessed the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIV). Results suggest a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on endothelial function.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Help Prevent Atherosclerosis
Summary: In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on plasma concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules - an indicator of atherosclerotic disease - results from 18 studies were analyzed and omega-3 PUFA supplementation was found to reduce plasma concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, while having no significant effects on soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. According to subgroup analysis, omega-3 PUFAs reduced slCAM-1 concentration in healthy subjects and in subjects with dyslipidemia. The authors conclude that these results support "the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA can be supplemented as a primary or secondary means for preventing the development as well as the progression of atherosclerosis."
Reference: "Effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on plasma soluble adhesion molecules: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials," Yang Y, Lu N, et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2012 Feb 29; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Cardiology, Bethune First Hospital of Jilin University, China, and Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Hypertension Division, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Fatigue
Summary: Higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids may be linked to decreased inflammation and decreased fatigue among breast cancer survivors. Subjects (n=633, mean age: 56 years) were breast cancer survivors (stage I to IIIA) participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Endpoints were measured via food frequency/dietary supplement questionnaire, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, serum amyloid A (30 months after diagnosis), the Piper Fatigue Scale and Short Form-36 (SF-36) vitality scale (39 months after diagnosis). Analysis tested relationships between inflammation, fatigue, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Survivors with high CRP had greater odds of fatigue. Higher intake of omega-6 relative to omega-3 was associated with greater CRP and greater odds of fatigue. Authors conclude that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids was related to decreased inflammation and decreased physical aspects of fatigue.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Statin Users
Summary: In a study involving 3,740 consistent statin drug users and 413 consistent non-statin users, low-dose supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids was found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of MI who are not being treated with statins. Subjects were randomized to receive supplementation with 400 mg/d EPA plus DHA, 2 g alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or both, or placebo. 13% of statin-users and 15% of non-statin users developed a major cardiovascular event. Among non-statin users, 9% of those who received EPA-DHA plus ALA were found to experience a major cardiovascular event, as compared to 18% in the placebo group (HR=0.46); no such corresponding benefit was found among statin users. The authors conclude, "This study suggests that statin treatment modifies the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the incidence of major cardiovascular events."
Reference: "Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction," Eussen SR, Geleijnse JM, et al, Eur Heart J, 2012 Feb 1; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Previously Depressed
Summary: Associations between omega-3 PUFA concentrations and cognitive function in an at-risk sample of older people with previous major depression were examined in this cross-sectional study. Participants (n=132) (mean +/- SD age: 67.8 +/- 6.6 y) had recovered from major depression. Samples and information were taken through questionnaire, cognitive tests and fasting blood samples. Higher EPA and total omega-3 PUFA concentrations and a lower ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA in erythrocyte membranes were associated with a higher cognitive composite score, adjusted for education levels. The strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total omega-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression. Findings suggest that total erythrocyte omega-3 PUFA concentrations may be positively associated with cognitive function, immediate recall, in elderly population with previous depression and that lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in the same population.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Risk of Osteoarthritis
Summary: In a study involving subjects, on average 60 years, mean BMI: 30, 50% women, a positive relationship was found between omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6) and inflammation associated with arthritis, and an inverse association was found between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Researchers assessed the association of fasting plasma phospholipid omega-6 and omega-3 with synovitis as measured by synovial thickening on contrast enhanced (CE) knee MRI and cartilage damage. An inverse relationship between total omega-3 PUFAs and DHA with patellofemoral cartilage loss was found, but no such relationship was found between omega-3 PUFAs and tibiofemoral cartilage loss or synovitis. A positive association was observed between the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, and synovitis. Researchers conclude that systemic levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may affect selected structural findings in knees with or at risk of OA.
Omega 3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Suicide Risks
Summary: In a retrospective, case-control study involving 1,600 subjects (800 U.S. military suicide deaths and 800 controls), risk of suicide death was 14% higher per standard deviation of lower DHA percentage (OR=1.14), according to adjusted logistic regression analysis. In men, the risk of suicide death was 62% greater with lower serum DHA status (adjusted OR=1.62). The authors state, "This US military population had a very low and narrow range of n-3 HUFA status. Although these data suggest that low serum DHA may be a risk factor for suicide, well-designed intervention trials are needed to evaluate causality."
Fish and Omega 3 Fatty Acids Support Cardiovascular Health and Reduce Inflammation
Summary: In a study involving 301 healthy adult subjects, consumption of fish was found to be inversely associated with changes in endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation and intake of EPA+DHA was inversely associated with changes in endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation as well. Consumption of fruit, vegetables, alcoholic beverages and dairy products were not found to be associated with endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation. These results add to the growing body of evidence supporting intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in supporting cardiovascular health and reducing inflammation.
Aging Allergies Arthritis Beauty Breathing Cancer Children Cognitive Function Depression Diabetes Erectile Dysfunction Exercise Fatigue Headache Heart Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Life Expectancy Metabolic Syndrome Obesity Oral Osteoporosis PMS Pneumonia Prenatal Skin Sleep Smoking Strength Stress Ulcerative Colitis Water Weight Loss
Nutrients and Diet
Alpha Lipoic Acid Amino Acids Antioxidants Arginine Calcium Carnitine Carotene Chromium Picolinate Citrulline Coenzyme Q10 DHEA Fat Fiber Fruit and Vegetables Garlic Ginkgo Biloba Glucosamine Vegetarian Diet Green Tea Iron Lutein Lycopene Magnesium Mediterranean Diet Multivitamins Nitric Oxide Nuts Olives Omega 3 Fatty Acids Policosanols Polyphenols Pomegranate Probiotics Pycnogenol Red Yeast Rice Salt Saffron Selenium Soy Theanine Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K White Tea Zinc