Wellness Database: Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is simply a group of common risk factors that often occur together and increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and diabetes. Obesity and insulin resistance are the two most common risk factors.
Vitamin D Supplementation May Reduce Mortality in Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome
Summary: Optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be protective in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Subjects (n=1,801) with the metabolic syndrome were investigated and mortality was tracked for a median of 7.7 years. Authors found that most subjects (92%) had suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D, with 22.2% being severely deficient. 462 deaths were recorded, 267 (57.8%) of which were cardiovascular in origin. Patients with optimal 25(OH)D levels showed a substantial reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared to those with severe vitamin D deficiency, along with a strong reduction for sudden death and congestive heart failure. Results indicate that optimal 25(OH)D levels substantially lowered all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome May Be Infectious
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Twenty per cent of NAFLD individuals develop chronic hepatic inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) associated with cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma, yet the causes of progression from NAFLD to NASH remain obscure. Here, we show that the NLRP6 and NLRP3 inflammasomes and the effector protein IL-18 negatively regulate NAFLD/NASH progression, as well as multiple aspects of metabolic syndrome via modulation of the gut microbiota. Different mouse models reveal that inflammasome-deficiency-associated changes in the configuration of the gut microbiota are associated with exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation through influx of TLR4 and TLR9 agonists into the portal circulation, leading to enhanced hepatic tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression that drives NASH progression. Furthermore, co-housing of inflammasome-deficient mice with wild-type mice results in exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and obesity. Thus, altered interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, produced by defective NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasome sensing, may govern the rate of progression of multiple metabolic syndrome-associated abnormalities, highlighting the central role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of heretofore seemingly unrelated systemic auto-inflammatory and metabolic disorders.
Source: Nature (2012) doi:10.1038/nature10809
Vitamin D Supplementation May Reduce Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Summary: Researchers observed a significant inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for diabetes risk factors and season. Using a case-cohort design, baseline levels of 25-OHD were measured in 416 case subjects with incident type 2 diabetes and 1,267 non-case subjects selected from a source population of 7,936 middle-aged participants. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI comparing tertile extremes was 0.63. Further adjustment for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interferon-g-inducible protein-10 attenuated this association by 16% (HR=0.73). The authors conclude that vitamin D status may be inversely related to type 2 diabetes risk and data suggests that this association may be partially mediated by subclinical inflammation.
Americans More Aware of Poor Dietary Habits
Although the actual healthfulness of diets has not changed much in the last 15 years, there has been a large and significant decrease in the percentage of Americans who rate their diets as Excellent or Very Good.
• The share of people who said that their diets were excellent or very good declined by 9.1 percentage points, from 41 percent to 31.9 percent, between 1989-91 and 2005-08.
• Declines in the share of excellent or very good self-ratings of diet were especially large among Hispanics and people who were underweight, overweight, or obese, younger than 65, or had some college education (but not a college degree).
• People who perceived themselves as overweight became less likely to rate their diet as excellent or very good between 1989-91 and 2005-08.
• Those who had diets high in fat were much less likely to rate their diets as very good or excellent in 2005-08 than in 1989-91.
These results suggest a reduced optimistic bias in Americans’ views of their diets—and perhaps greater receptiveness to information about the relationships between diet and health.
We also find a strong relationship between diet assessment and some dietary choices and habits. Comparing subjective ratings of diet quality across different groups, we find:
• Self-ratings of diet healthfulness tend to be low among people who report a higher share of their food budget spent away from home and of calories eaten away from home.
• Those with better diet self-ratings are more likely to share meals with the family, both at home and away from home.
• Those who report high diet quality are more likely to keep skim milk and dark green vegetables on hand in the household, and they are less likely to stock sugar-sweetened beverages.
Source: Economic Information Bulletin No. (EIB-83) 24 pp, September 2011
Chocolate Consumption Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk
Summary: In a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort (6) and cross-sectional (1) studies carried out in adults, results from 7 studies including 114,009 subjects were analyzed, and it was concluded that higher chocolate consumption was found to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Specifically, the highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (RR=0.63) and a 29% reduced risk of stroke, as compared to the lowest chocolate consumption. The authors conclude, "Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption."
Vitamin D May Decrease Risk of Metabolic Syndrome
Summary: In a case-control study involving 100 premenopausal women with waist circumference 88 cm or greater, with the Metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome were found to have significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass, and lower seurm osteocalcin. In this group, subjects with vitamin D deficiency has a significantly higher plasma glucose levels were found in those with vitamin D deficiency. The authors state, "In stepwise regression analysis, 25(OH)D was the main predictor of both hsCRP and plasma glucose. Vitamin D status may, at least in part, be a determining factor of systemic inflammation and the related metabolic derangements of MeS."
Reference: "Is vitamin D status a determining factor for metabolic syndrome? A case-control study," Salekzamani S, Neyestani TR, et al, Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 2011; 4: 205-12. (Address: Department of Nutrition Research, National Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran).
Dr. Andrew Myers: Vitamin D (The Sunshine Nutrient)
Vitamin D: The Sunshine Nutrient
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most widespread health concerns, impacting people of all races and ages. At the same time, some of the very best research being published recently is about the importance of receiving enough Vitamin D. This nutrient is unique in that it can be received directly from the sun. Depending on variables such as where you live and type of skin, it can take up to 30 minutes of unprotected sun exposure twice a week for your body to produce sufficient Vitamin D. While receiving too much unprotected sun exposure can be dangerous, avoiding sunlight altogether is also dangerous without supplementing. Vitamin D is not present in necessary amounts in most common foods, making it difficult to prevent deficiency through diet alone. Fish, though, such as tuna and salmon, contains significant amounts of the sunshine nutrient.
The need for Vitamin D is particularly important for young children and the elderly. As we age, the ability of the skin to manufacture Vitamin D and the kidneys to synthesize it decrease. In addition, many people spend less time outside as they age. This makes it especially important for older people to increase their Vitamin D intake through supplementation.
Facts about Vitamin D
- It offers protective effects against several types of cancer.
- It promotes bone mineralization and formation.
- It reduces the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction and heart attacks.
- It supports healthy immune system activity and reduces infections.
Benefits of Vitamin D
Osteoporosis: Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and it is becoming obvious that a deficiency of Vitamin D is a major contributing factor to the development of a brittle, fracture-proe skeletal system.
Cancer: Many studies have documented Vitamin D’s protective effects against colon cancer, oral and esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, leukemia, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer.
Heart Health: Vitamin D deficiency is known to be associated with an increase in high blood pressure and other cardiovascular risks. In one study it was found that individuals with low levels of Vitamin D had a more than 60% higher risk of heart disease or heart attack that those with normal levels. In another study, teens with lowest levels of Vitamin D had a 400% increase in their risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a major factor in developing cardiovascular disease.
In addition, Vitamin D may help prevent obesity, arthritis, and infections, and may help to maintain cognitive health in elderly individuals.
Typically 2,000 IU (International Units) to 5,000 IU per day. Certain health conditions may require up to 10,000 IU per day. Be sure to consult with your physician before starting or stopping any regimen, especially if you have health concerns or are taking prescription medications.
Magnesium May Prevent Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome
Magnesium plays a role in a number of chronic, disease-related conditions. This article reviews current pertinent literature on magnesium, focusing on hypertension and cardiovascular diseases and implications for relationships with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A major role for magnesium is in the regulation of blood pressure. While data are not entirely consistent, it does appear that an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and blood pressure is strongest for magnesium obtained from food rather than that obtained via supplements. Hypertension associated with preeclampsia appears to be alleviated when magnesium is administered; in addition, women with adequate intakes of magnesium are less likely to be affected by preeclampsia than those with an inadequate intake. A role for magnesium in other cardiovascular diseases has been noted in that increased magnesium intake may improve serum lipid profiles. Dietary magnesium is also recommended to aid in the prevention of stroke and is important for skeletal growth and development. Magnesium may also play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. There are data from some studies, such as the DASH and PREMIER studies, that suggest that lifestyle changes (including adequate magnesium intake) can benefit blood pressure control, promote weight loss, and improve chronic disease risk.
Magnesium in Hypertension, Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, and Other Conditions: A Review. doi: 10.1177/0884533608314533 Nutr Clin Pract April 2008 vol. 23 no. 2 142-151
Spices May Enhance Antioxidant Defenses
Summary: In a randomized, crossover study involving 6 healthy, overweight men, adding 14 g of culinary spices rich in antioxidant properties to a 1200 kcal meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after consuming a control meal without spices. Furthermore, the hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma was also increased by the spices. The authors conclude, "The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses."
Fish and Shellfish Intake Reduces Diabetes Risk
Summary: In a prospective, population-based, cohort study involving 51,963 men and 64,193 women free of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, intakes of fish, shellfish, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids were found to be inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in women. The RRs for type 2 diabetes across quintiles of fish intake in women were: 1.00, 0.96, 0.84, 0.80, and 0.89, and the RRs for shellfish intake were 1.00, 0.91, 0.79, 0.80, and 0.86. In men, only the association between shellfish intake and type 2 diabetes was significant. The authors conclude that in this Chinese population, "an inverse association between fish and shellfish intake and T2D in women was found.
"Reference: "Fish, shellfish, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women," Villegas R, Xiang YB, et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 June 15; [Epub ahead print]. (Address: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China).
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Nutrients and Diet
Alpha Lipoic Acid Amino Acids Antioxidants Arginine Calcium Carnitine Carotene Chromium Picolinate Citrulline Coenzyme Q10 DHEA Fat Fiber Fruit and Vegetables Garlic Ginkgo Biloba Glucosamine Vegetarian Diet Green Tea Iron Lutein Lycopene Magnesium Mediterranean Diet Multivitamins Nitric Oxide Nuts Olives Omega 3 Fatty Acids Policosanols Polyphenols Pomegranate Probiotics Pycnogenol Red Yeast Rice Salt Saffron Selenium Soy Theanine Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K White Tea Zinc